Notes on Hudson Valley History

0 1759

Szerző: Howard Phillips Lovecraft • Év: 1929

 

(from “Dutch Homes in Hudson Valley before 1776”, by Helen Wilkinson Reynolds)

 

Counties created 1683. Early houses small and modest—stone prevailing material—single slant roof—steep in Albany Co., stepped gables only in NYC and Albany—uniformity considerable, esp. in Ulster. Putnam was never Dutch—NE overflow. Orange peopled by Eng. and Scotch-Irish—Rockland allied to N. J. In Hudson Valley the familiar carved roof line of N. J., L. I., and Manhattan is quite rare. Wooden construction also rare except in late Dutchess—though common on L. I. because of lack of stone. In N. J. brownstone used. Elsewhere grey field stone. L. I. shews much N. E. influence. Dutch houses frequently begun as small primitive units and enlarged later by builder or descendants. Wings frequently larger than original and became main portion. Attic is granary, freq. with gran. door. 1 1/2 stories usual height. Gambrel not prevalent till 1760 period. Steep-porch—gradually appear. Also dormers. Brick made in colony in Dutch style. Population had Norwegian, Danish, German, Walloon, Huguenot, and British infusion, but Dutch culture prevailed. Slaves, etc. freed 1827 had Dutch names. Manorial grants (9) only in Albany (2), Westchester (6), and Ulster (1). English adopted Dutch designs in building. Dutch eventually turned to Georgian or adopted Georgian features. Geographical units (exclusive of southern NY) in order of development—Albany Co. (now including set-off counties of Columbia [1786], Renssalaer [1791], Greene [1800], and Schenectady [1809]), Ulster Co., Westchester Co., and Dutchess Co. Houses frequently dated by carved inset stones TDW 1749 (Tjerck DeWitt), CL MB 1701 (Cornelis Lamberts [Brink] and Marritje Egbertse Brink), or dark bricks in walls—or metal figures affixed. Brick early began to replace stone in Albany Co.; not in Ulster till after 1800. In Dutchess brick and stone combined in mid. XVIII cent. Brick common in Dutchess after 1760. Frame appears after Revolution in Albany, but not till XIX cent. in Ulster. Earlier and wider in Dutchess because of Conn. overflow and L. I. influx after 1740. Frame walls filled with brick or mud—very thick. Very primitive farmhouses on wild Ulster frontier have few windows. Heating difficult—low ceilings and small windows. Vast fireplaces. Great chimneys supported by arches of masonry or brick in cellar. In Albany, picturesque wall or beam anchors—trefoil † etc. Farm buildings—barn (wide—great door—projecting upper floor—roof slopes to near ground at side), corn crib (frame), and stone smokehouse. Stone walls as in NE—but not quite so common. Some Va. rail fencing. extended. Farms—garden vegetables near ho. Orchard important. Veg. and grain plantings widely till late XVIII cent. Locust trees and lilacs great feature. Locusts line avenues to country-seats. Wells with well-sweeps—rain barrels. Pop. NY State 1667—8000. 1698—18,067. Ft. Orange 1624. Rensselaerwyck open’d 1630. Beverwyck vill. (Albany) 1652. Wiltwyck (Kingston) 1653. Schenectady 1662— Nieuw Dorp (Hurley) 1662)—In 1680 settlements of farmers (boers) at Kinderhook and Clayerack (Columb. Co.). Also Catskill (nr. Leeds). Five settlers at Poughkeepsie 1691, Church at Sleep Hollow bef. 1697. River counties in 1703—11,680. In 1771, 168,007 (148,124 white, 19,883 black). Slaves in outbuildings, attics, or basements. Came from West Indies, Africa, or S. America. Brought to NY City. Huguenots in New Paltz and N. Rochelle. Germans from Palatinate in Red Hook, Dutchess.

River divided into reaches—Lange Rak (Long Reach) straight chan from Kromni, Elleboog (Crooked Elbow) at Hyde Park to Danse Kammer (Dance Chamber—w. shore) New Hamburgh. Midway (w. shore s. of Poughk. bridge) is Juffrouw’s Hoek (Madam’s Point). Gathering-places of Indians at mouths of streams or kills. Settlers traversed Hudson in sloops, and were slow in pushing inland. First farmlands of interior were along Kin, derhook and Claverack Crks. in Columbia. In Ulster, the Bonte Koe (Spotted Cow) plain Wallkill nr New Paltz and Wagen Dal on the Rondout were early developed. Animals—wolves, panthers, bears, wildcats, foxes, polecats, snakes—deer, fish, partridges, turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons. Plants—edible nuts in woods—wild grapevines (purple and white grapes), festooning trees—Beans, peas, pumpkins, melons, hops, strawberries, apples, cherries, pears, peaches reported native. Maize, wheat, rye, barley, and oats all early raised.

Nine manorial grants under Eng. Rule. In Westchester, Fordham (1671), Pelham (1687), Philipseborough (1693), Morrisania (1697), Cortlandt (1697), and Scarsdale (1701). In Ulster, Fox Hall (1672). In Albany—Rensselaer (1685) and Livingston (1686). Rensselaer Manor was perpetuation of Dutch patroon grant of Rensselaerwyck in 1630. Lords of manors held estates in entail. Held courts-leet* and courts-baron † in their realms Manors did not prosper colonists preferred freeholds. Lords and tenants placed apart in church.

Freeholds began with large patents—Crown confirmation of title—with subsequent sale. Many speculations and booms. Graft and boundary dispute occurred under Gov. Fletcher, but later rectified. Squatters frequent—also roving woodsmen—hunters, fishers, guides, interpreters—like coureurs du bois—restless and irresponsible—drunken and quarrelsome. Typical woodsman Kit Davidtsz—Englishman Christopher Davis.

Dugouts used at New Amst. and Alb. for first arrivals. Log and board cabins in Ulster. Villages—Beverwyck (Alb. 1652), Wiltwyck (1653), Schenectady (1662), Nieuw Dorp (1662), New Paltz (1671). Albany and New Paltz and Schenectady houses had gable to street—but many exceptions. Lime obtained from oyster beds and limestone rocks. Kilns at Barnegat (fire-hole) nr. Poughkeepsie. Small stone ho. 44 x 36 cost Ł60 aside from materials and labour etc.—4 or 5 months’ time allowed. Brick made on spot or conveyed in sloops on river.

Hipped roofs rare. 1 1/2 stories usual. Central hall, boxed stairs, 2 rooms on each side—front large, rear small. Back door opp. front. Chimneys gable or centre. Bed-niches often next chimneys—hearthside centre of fans. life. Seats on stoep—grain in hogsheads in attic—beams and planks shew vast trees. Doors horizontally divided—broad in prop. to height—battened or panelled—doors and windows generally hung at inner side of thick walls—transoms with double rows of lights frequent—decoration rare in primitive specimens—verge boards in Ulster have rounded ends—Albany exterior ironwork simply artistic. Houses generally amateur built—esp. stone houses. Picturesque and uncom sciously artistic irregularities occur. Travelling carpenters, masons, blacksmiths, etc. with standardised designs helped builders. Ironwork especially standardised throughout NY. Few masters and many travelling apprentices. Professional designs after 1760 or Revolution. Mills frequent—inland on creeks. No good roads N. and S. Boers wore wagon tracks between farms and river for shipment of produce. Families and communities isolated and self-sufficient—not gregarious as in N. E. Indian trails N. and S.—Indian runners. That E. of Hudson laid out after 1700 as King’s Highway or Albany Post Rd. That W. of Hudson —crossing Ulster thro’ Ellenville and Accord—Stone Ridge, Catskill, W. Coxsackie and Albany—was main trail from Penn. to Canada. Road NE to SW in Dutchess XVIII cent. part of main route N. E. to South. Turnpikes XIX cent. R. R. 1850. Most houses and villages just out of sight inland, hence wooded riverbanks looked primitive till 1830 or so. Occasional landings with docks, storehouse, and dwelling. Kinderhood Landing, Claverack Landing (Hudson), Esopus Landing, Long Dock at Kipsbergen, Upper and lower Landings at Poughkeepsie, Fishkill Landing (beacon), etc. Early accounts of Hudson Valley in Diaries of Jasper Danckaerts of Holland (1680), Richd Smith of N. J. (1769), and Abraham Lott of NY (1774). All in print. Interior roads to river frequented by grain wagons, droves of cattle, sheep, etc.—sloops on river. Fast travel common at first. Horse—saddle and pillion—carry 2. Bridle-paths thro’ woods, marked by blazed trees, supplemented roads. Sleighs used early—sometimes on ice of river. Pleasure vehicles rare in XVIII cent. Derick Brinkerhoffs phaeton attr. attention in S. Dutchess—now in Ford collection. Isaac Van Wyck of Fishkill (1794—1811 in legislature) had yellow coach and four with negro coachman and footman. Indian canoes omnipresent in XVIII cent. Sloops survived till steamboat days. Passengers carried own bedding and food. Livestock strapped to mast. Ferries gradually developed—scows and periaugers.

Counties—created 1683—very separate in life and history. A few families intermarried within each one, forming groups with separate traditions and economic linkage. Visiting not widespread. Ulster most isolated—and its own parts split by mountains. Albany-Rensselaerwck region sent out XVII cent. colonisations to Schenectady, Coxsackie, Coeymans, Catskill, Claverack, and Kinderhook. Also to Esopus and Poughkeepsie. Ulster drew settlers from Rensselaerwyck and also NYC, Harlem, and Long Island. A Unit. Westchester and Dutchess also became units. Individuals sometimes moved from one county to another, but seldom visited. On going to the new place they became wholly a part of it. Bad roads instrumental in effecting this.

A few traditions exist in common throughout the Hudson Valley. (a) that certain houses were used as forts or garrison houses in Indian raids. Loopholes (flaring at inner ends), glass inserts in doors, etc. Loopholes under eaves or scattered irregularly. (b) three cases of a tomahawk story—gash in woodwork (door or staircase) where thrown tomahawk (Tory or Indian) missed intended victim. (c) false notion that bricks came from Holland. (d) that huge back log of kitchen fireplace used to be drawn in by horse or ox. (e) that house used to be a tavern. (f) that “Night before Christmas” was written in H. Valley. One claimant is Henry Livingston Jr. of Poughkeepsie. (g) that Washington visited house. (h) anecdotes of British raid up Hudson in Octr. 1777 under Capt. Sir James Wallace and Maj. Gen. Sir John Vaughan. Reconnoitring party Oct. 12. Real raid Oct. 15. 30 sail (8 large vessels). Fired shots (cf. Bristol R. I.) at houses—landing parties burned buildings. Kingston burned. Houses affected—Van Keuren, Ten Broeck, Livingston, Van Voorhees, Du Bois, Stoutenburgh. (i) false tradition that underground passage connects Sleepy Hollow church with Philipse Castle on Pocantico. Originated in published fiction. Other false traditions exist.

Kingston cap. N. Y. few months in 1777. Refuge Hurley at burning. Houses too cold—transf. Poughkeepsie Ct. Ho. 1778–83. Soc. Cincinnati org. Verplanck ho. Beacon (Fishkill).

Many houses run down and in alien hands. Many in same families but no progress—or retrogression. Some on other hands well maintained. A very few well maintained in original families—such as Philip Van Rens. (Cherry Hill) at Albany—Wynkoop at Hurley—Livingston—Clermont—Madam Brett and Verplanck at Fishkill—Van Cortlandt manor (Croton).

 

Albany County

 

1614–17 United New Netherland Co. of Holland had small Ft. Nassau at head of Hudson Navigation. (Castle, Van R. or Westerlo I.) In int. of fur trade. Soon abandoned. Dutch W. I. Co. took N. Neth. 1623. 1624 30 fans. Walloons sent out. 18 ascend to found Ft. Orange now Alb. Bark huts. Return to Manhattan, leaving Ft. Or. to garrison and fur traders. 1630 Kiliaen Van Rensselaer of Amsterdam forms Colony of Rensselaerwyck as patroon (absentee). 22 1/2 m. N. and S. 48 m. E. and W. First houses Greenbush, opp. Ft. Orange. Spring floods. Losses. Fr. Jogues of Quebec (Jesuit martyr) descr. place 1643. Weak and small. 100 people 25 or 30 ho. along river. Sawmills. Wooden thatched houses. Log fort. 1652 Vill. Beverwyck—free from R. under Gov. of N. Neth. Brick houses etc. appear. Steep roofs. Stepped gables in Beverwyck. Gambrels appear Catskill 1729. Troy 1750’s. Cohoes 1750–60. Georgian models 3d gener. XVIII cent. Stone houses appear on farms when brick app. in town. Albany descr. Peter Kalm (Swede) 1749. Mrs. Anne McVickar Grant of Loggan, Scotland desc. period 1758-68. (consult). Arcadian simplicity. Along (non-stepped) gabel-end roof lines, bricks often an. in succes. sive trangles called muizetanden or mouse-teeth. Dormers or gables had stepped roof lines.

Schuylers great fans. Old fans. seat—The Flatts (1688—burnt 1759 and rebuilt) N. of Albany. Still standing. Cf. Grant memoirs. Philip S. of Ren. celebrity b. in steer roofed ho. in town. (like Quebec oldest ho.) The Pastures (Georgian) built by hint 1762. Still standing S. part of Albany. Far north at Schuylerville built ho. 1763, occupy’d and burnt by Burgoyne 1777—rebuilt 1778. Still standing.

Van Rensselaer—patroons—absentee till 1685 when 3d patr. Kiliaen came. Manor house was Watervliet (torn down) N. of Albany. Enlarged for res. of patroon. Crailo (brick ho. standing) across river in Greenbush built for tenants but given in 1704 to younger brother Hendrick as seat by 4th patr. Kiliaen. Klaver Rak (Clover Reach) remote estate given to brother in 1704. Still standing—rambling. Son of Hendrick (land given 1704) was Kiliaen—who had gam. roof ho. (1742) at E. Greenbush. Bought by Geo. Clinton and sold to his son-in-law Citizen Genet. Still standing and owned by Genet descendant. Philip Van R. (1747-1798) built Cherry Hill in S. of Albany nr. Schuyler’s Pastures. Still in good shape occ. by desc. Among tenant houses built by 4th Patroon Kiliaen was one (gambrel) in East Greenbush call’d Kost Verlaren (cost lost). Still standing. Sch. and Van Rs. intermarried.

Livingstons originally Scotch—Robt. L. 1st Lord of Manor b. Scotland. Kept tradition but intermarried Dutch. Dutch house designs. 1st manor long low stone—1699— burned or demolished early XIX cent. 2nd Lord lived NYC. 3d Lord inherited manor 1749. His son Peter R. Livingston expected to inherit, and started new brick house, but Ren. broke up manors—so P. stopped building, retired from world, and lived in unfin. ho. with makeshift roof over 1st story. Called it The Hermitage. Still standing in bad shape occ. by labourers. Other Liv. houses still standing—Clermont (estate bequeathed 1728 by lst Ld. to younger son Robt.) built 1730—burnt 1777—rebuilt 1778. 2 stories hipped roof. Still well kept by descendants. Teviotdale similar but smaller. Used for hay storage. Oak Hill (1790) well kept and in family.

Coeymans. Barent Pieterse C. of Coeymans Castle b. Holland came Rensselaerwyck in youth—worked in patroon’s null—grew prosperous—bought land from Ind. S. of Alb. 1673—estab. mill village Coeymans—built house Coeymans Castle—now gone. Litigation over title—disp. by Patroon of Renss. Compromise and Crown Patent. Barent P. C. d. bet. 1706 and 1714. Estate div. 1716. Daughter Ariaantje b. 1672 built great ho. with stepped dormer bet. 1716 and 1723. Old maid—in 1723 m. David Verplanck, 23 yrs junior. Unhappy. Had portr. painted and tried to live in elegance. d. 1743. Ho. standing but altered. Gambrelised. Rented to Italians.

 

Typical Albany C. Surnames

 

Beekman                  Lansing                    Van Antwerp           Vedder

Bogardus                  Livingston                Van Bergen              Wendall

Bradt (Norweg.)       Mabie                       Van Buren                Yates

Bronck                     Muller                      VandenBergh

Coeymans                Nicoll                       Vanderheyden

Conyn                       Salisbury                  Van Loon

Cuyler                      Schaets                     Van Rensselaer

Douw                        Schulyer                   Van Schaack

Fonda                       Staats                       Van Schaick

Glen                         Ten Broeck              Van Vechten

Gardenier                 Tyssinck                   Van Wie

Hogeboom               Van Alan

Van Alstyne

 

Ulster County

 

1614–17—trading post at Rondout Creek mouth est. by United New Neth. Co. who also built Ft. Nassau. Abandoned. No real Ulster sett. till 1653. In 1652 disputes in Renss’wyck over boundaries-3 or 4 settlers** against patroon’s representative—dissatisfied men sailed down river to Esopus region to obtain freeholds—built homes and village on high (Kingston) plateau—others came—Wiltwyck-1653-1663 log houses—stone ho. later—great uniformity in design. Conservatism. Roads and houses along streams whose valleys are sep. by mt. ranges. Little visiting. Old man recently said he had not visited relatives across difficult creek in 40 years. Settlers from Rensselaerwyck, Manhattan, Long Island—diverse origin—Huguenots—fused by D. Ref. Church—Creeks—Esopus, Wallkill, Rondout. Exquisite landscape. Villages Hurley, Marbletown, Ellenville, Rochester, Rosendale, Napanoch, Wawarsing, New Paltz, Stone Ridge. New Dorp (Hurley) Itel6r.62. Marbletown 1670. New Paltz (Huguenot) 1677. Frontier region. Indian wars and Tory raids. Hurley burnt 1663—prisoners taken to Ind. new fort on Shawangunk. Kingston cap. NY 1777. Burnt. Frontier houses (pioneer) few windows. Ulster houses of seldom have steep roofs of Albany houses. Brick very rare. Scarcely any wooden frame houses except of late date. Simplicity and modest proportions the rule.// Van Keuren and Jansen both descended (thro. diff lines) from Mattys Jansen Van Keulen.//Vanderlyn—painter.

 

Typical Ulster Surnames

 

Bevier                      Elting                       Masten                     Ten Broeck

Bogardus                  Freer                         Mynderse                 Ten Eyck

Brink                        Hardenbergh            Nieuwkerk               Terwilliger

Bruyn                       Hasbrouck                Osterhoud                Van Aken

Decker                      Hoffman                   Pawling                    Van Buren

De Puy                     Hoornbeck               Rutsen                      Van Deusen

DeWi                        Jansen                      Schoonmaker           Van Keuren

Dayo                         Kierstede                  Smi                           Van Wagenen

DuBois                     Krom                        Tack                         Vernooy

Elmendorf                LeFevre                    Westbrook               Wynkoop

Louw

 

Westchester Co.

 

Eastchester undeveloped by Dutch at early date. Eastern part held Connecticut English overflow. French Hughenots at New Rochelle. Dutch strip along Hudson—churches at Fordham, Sleepy Hollow, and Cortlandtville. Westch. largely taken up by manors. S. of central part toward Sound were Fordham (1671), Pelham (1687), Morrisania (1697), and Scarsdale (1701). Two large manors Philipsborough (1693) and Cortlandt (1697) along Hudson. Phil. from Spuyten Duyvil to Croton R., Cortlandt from Croton to county line (except for Ryck’s Patent at Peekskill). Thus Dutch Westchester confined largely to manorial holdings of Philipses and Van Cortlandts. Tenants preferred freeholds, and frequently migrated to Rockland, Orange, and Dutchess counties. Emigration especially thick 1725–1750. Tenant system checked housebuilding. Old stone type followed—most gone. Irving’s Sunnyside is enlargment of old Wolvert Ecker ho. Few brick and gambrels middle XVIII cent. Development preceded by wilderness period—Indian trading—furs—strong houses—sawmills—grist mills. New farms opened—lords lived in NY and merely had business headquarters on estates. Frederick Philipse (Vreedryck Fylipse) 1st Lord-1626–1702. Had 2 hdqtrs.—one on Neperhan at Yonkers, one on Pocantico at Sl. Hollow—both later enlarged as manor houses. Stephanus Van Cortlandt (1643-1700) 1st Lord had hdqtrs. at mouth of Cm-ton—developed from earlier fur-traders’ depot after 1687. Later lord—Fred’k Van C. built Georgian manor house at Lower Yonkers (Van C. Pk.) 1748. Georgian. Philipse Manor at Yonkers built 1682—developed as Georgian mansion by 2nd Lord Fred’k Philipse 1751 et seq. Philipse Castle at Tarrytown never inhabited except by overseer. Lord had a room ready for business visits. Rents etc. paid here. Mill and farm. Sleepy Hollow church built before 1697 for tenantry. Door changed from middle S. wall to W. end, and windows lengthened and Gothicised 1837. Otherwise orig. state. Tall Vane on E. end, with initials VF for Vreedryck Fylipse. Bell cast Holland (iron) 1685. A farmhouse (tenant) of this manor stands at Irvington on W. side of road as gatehouse of estate. Built 1746. Philipse loyalists—estate confiscated.

Van C. Manor Croton-on-Hudson. Developed from early small stone ho. after 1687 as business off. and hunting lodge. Began to be year-round residence 1749. Successively enlarged and still in family.

 

Dutchess County

 

Apparently last to be settled. Created 1683, territory covered by 10 Crown patents granted bet. 1685 and 1706 except for eastern strip, The Oblong, gained in 1731 through boundary rectification with Conn. No manorial grants. One patent—The Rombout—obtained for fur-trading use but later converted to sale as freehold farms. A few patentees leased land to tenants***—but this was exception. Mostly small freehold sales in fee simple. Reflected in social life.

White men first invaded in 1680’s—stragglers and squatters, without valid titles to land. Early temporary arrivals—Severyn Ten Hout, Peche DeWaal, Men Tennissen. First permanent resident Pieter Pieterse Lassen of Amsterdam—came to Rens’wyck 1659 (Beverwyck) and in 1681 went down river—first Esopus, then across to patent of Col. Pieter Schuyler of Albany—in Dutchess, just S. of mouth of Jan Casper’s Kill in Poughkeepsie. His ho. mentioned in Schuyler’s patent of 1688. Standing till XIX cent. In 1686 Sanders and Harmense patent (Robert Sanders, Myndert Harniense Van Den Bogaerdt) covered vast area incl. site of city of Poughkeepsie. On this city site, as tenants, there lived in June 1691 5 Dutchmen—Baltus Barents Van Kleeck, Hendrick Oostrand, Jan Oostrum, Jan Buys, and Symen Schouten. After a trial of conditions here, Buys and Schouten moved to valley of Vis Kill, Oostrand to unknown place, Oostrum and Van Kleeck stayed at P’kpsie. In 1697 Van Kleeck purchased a large farm and in 1702 built 2nd permanent ho. in Dutchess. Mill St—P’kpsie. demol. 1835. Next set of home sites at Kipsbergen (Rhinebeck)—1688 patent by 5 men, Gerret Aertsen Van Wagenen, Arie Roosa, Jan Elton, Hendrick Kip, Jacob Kip—all from Ulster across the river. Hendrick Kip built ho. 1700 or 1701—ruins still standing but altered and added to. Another smaller ho. nearby 1708 or older. At this point Sepasco Trail of Indians ran E. from Hudson. Later Germans from Palatinate, settling farther back from river, outnumbered Dutch. Between 1708 and 1713 5 men acquired land at mouth of Vis Kill on Rondout Patent held by Catherine Rombout Brett, forming 3d local community in Dutchess. Casper Prince, Thomas Brasier, Youry (Jeurriaen) Springsteed (of whom track is lost), and Peter Du Bois and Jan Buys, who remained as residents.

These pioneer groups—Poughkeepsie, Kipsbergen, and Fishkill—clung closely to shore. Interior settled slowly. In first quarter-century arrivals were Dutchmen, Huguenots, Walloons, and Palatinate Germans. . . . no great number, and all settling within easy reach of river. About 1740 rate of immigration vastly increased by influx from New England, Long Island, New Jersey, and Westchester. NE overflow filled up eastern half nr. Conn. line and made English community, though an unusually free interchange of ideas with Dutch took place. Other arrivals chiefly Dutch—chose creek valleys (Vis Kil, Sprout, Wappingers) to settle in. Dutch and Eng. freely mingled, and exhanged arhitec-tural ideas—hence Dutch frame houses and Eng. houses with Dutch doors etc. Communication easy—rolling country with only one mountainous ridge (in E. Part of Co., N and S). In general, the stone houses due to settlers from Europ. continent, and frame to New Englanders (and some L. I. Dutch). Dutch churches at P’kpsie (1716), Vis Kil (1716), Rhinebeck (1736), New Hackensack (1756) and Hopewell (1757)—all in W. half of county. No dugouts. Settlement leisurely. Houses mainly stone (despite frame ho. Pieter Viele, P’kpsie, 1713) till middle XVIII cent. Wooden houses in Vis Kill valley due to Long Island Dutch. Plan like that of stone ho. Shingles had rounded lower ends. Clapboards also used. Small windows under eaves 1790. Brick somewhat used in 2nd half XVIII cent. Earliest specimen 1740. Gambrels begin to appear. Prosperous period 1790-1810—many alterations—Adam woodwork and hardware introduced.

Dutchess never had trouble with Indians, and all the various white elements harmonised well. King’s Highway order’d 1703. After country was opened—roads, farms, mills, landings, etc.—forests cut, ferns clear’d—etc—prosperity increased. Living standard rises later half XVIII cent. and early XIX cent. Good land, easy water transportation, large NY markets, etc. create much opulence 1790–1830; reflected in excellent Adam architecture. Decline after 1830 due to economic competition. Erie Canal and railways brought western grain and beef and destroy’d monopoly of NY markets. Most vigorous sons emigrated to seek fortunes in towns. Stagnation and occasional retrogression. Much decay—but a few old places held in pristine splendour by descendants. Villages—Hyde Pk—Swartwountville, Wappinger, Fishkill, Beacon, Armenia, P’kpsie, New Hackensack, Washington, Clinton, Pleasant Valley, etc.

Most important S. Dutchess patent is Rombout Patent taken out in partnership (1685) by Francois Rombouts of Hasselt in diocese of Liege (a Walloon who came to Nieuw Amsterdam and served as mayor there), the heirs of Gulian (Wm.) Verplanck of N.Y., and Stephanus Van Cortlandt. 85,000 acres bought in 1683 by Rombouts and Verplanck—latter died. Patent issued, 1685 to Rombouts, Verplanck heirs, and Van Cortlandt. Rom. Patent cover’d a wilderness and was acquired for use in fur trade. No settlement in generation of patentees. In 1703 Rom. died, and in 1708 the greater part of the patent was divided betwixt representatives of 3 patentees. By this partition, a large tract bordering on Vis Kil from Hudson eastward fell to Rom.’s only surviving child Catherine, wife of Roger Brett, Esq., of New-York, then living in her father’s house in Broadway NYC. Mrs. Brett (who spoke and wrote a mixture of Eng. and Dutch) decided to develop her land by settlement and sale, hence borrow’d money on bond and mortgage. From 1708 to 1713 she continued to live in NYC. After that, at Fishkill. While still living in NY Mr. and Mrs. Brett began the formation of a small community at mouth of Fish Kill—grist mill, dwelling, and 300 acres—also sold or rented 5 farms. In 1713 mov’d to Fishkill (prob. living in mill house) and in 1714 at, ranged for the building of an house by Robt. Dengee, carpenter, of Hempstead, L. I. Finish’d June 1716—Dengee recd. 110 acres-10 acres bonus over 100 agreed upon. Frame house with rounded shingles, walls slanting slightly inward as they rise, to give added firmness. Still standing in fine shape and inhabited by descendants—now in midst of city of Beacon, N. Y. Mr. Brettt drown’d in Hudson bet. Octr. 1716 and Jany. 1718—after completion of house. Mrs. B. left with 2 young sons—difficulty with mortgage, held by Geo. Clarke, Secy. of Province. He helped straighten things out by large sales of land. In 1718 2000 acres sold to Dirck Brinkerhoff of Flushing, L. I., who settled his 4 sons Abraham, John, Isaac, and Jacob on the property. From then on Madam Brett dealt much in real estate, and is noted for sagacity as pioneer and promoter. She sold farms, operated mill, joined in estab. of landing and storehouse on river, etc. In 1743 her step-nephew Abraham DePeyster bought the mill property and later built gambrel-roof’d house there.

House of John Teller (b. 1741 m. 1764 1st cous. Mgt. Stoutenburgh) (gtgrandson Wm. T. founded T. fam. Hud. Val.) built house at Clinton, Dutchess, circa 1764—nr. Bull’s Head. Now own’d Harry Husted. Stone house, stucco’d 1 1/2 stories—central hall and 2 rooms on main floor. On landing of stariway at rear of hall is beam built in against wall and cut in peculiar shapes. Tradition names it the Witch Beam—to keep witches away—but does not explain further. House suffers from lack of care—has lost most of original finish.

Verplancks developed their share of the Rombout Patent well. Home of Gulian Verplanck at Fishkill—built 1730 to 1750 on bank of Hudson overlooking Newburgh Bay—curve-roof gambrel with large 1804 addition—called Mt. Gulian. Hdqtrs. Baron Steuben—after war Soc. of Cincinnati org. here. Bronze tablet to that effect. Still in hands of family—Wm. E. Verplanck—who has fine coll. of antiquarian material.

 

Typical Dutchess Surnames

 

Ackerman                     Low                               Teller

Barculo                         Monfort                         Thurston

Bergh                            Montross                       Van Benschoten

Brett                              Myers                            Van Den Bogaerdt

Brewer                          Newco                           Van Der Bergh

Brinckerhoff                 Noxon                           Van Keuren

Cooper                          Palen (Peelen)               Van Kleeck

DeGraeff (le Comte)    Platt                              Van Vliet

Delamater                     Pawling                         Van Voorhees

DePeyster                     Roosevelt                      Van Wagenen

Du Bois                         Schenck                        Van Wyck

Duryea                          Schurrie                        Verplanck

Evertson                        Sieght                            Viele

Filkin                            Smith                            Westervelt

Fort                               Southard

Freer                             Storm

Garrison                        Stoutenburgh

Griffin                           Swartwout

Hasbrouck

Hay

Johnstone

Kip

Le Comte

Livingston

 

Typical New Netherland Christian Names

 

(Middle names more common than among English of corresponding period.) (Pieterse—Borentsz—etc. app. poss. mid. name.)

 

Male

 

Abraham                  Theodorus                Antony                     Wiliam

Baltus                       Jan                            Hendrick                  Matthew

Adolph                     Philip                       Abel                         Adrian

Cornelis                    Everardus                 Jean                          Jocham

Gerardus                   Mattys                      Samuel                     Jasper

Dirck                        Piertese                    Rutger                      Gulian

Johannes                   Levi                          Symen                      Moses

Frans                        Brandt                      Derick                      Robert

Baudoin                    Goris                        Isaac                         Joseph

Gilbertus                  Wessel                     Jacobus                    Peche

Abram                      Diedrich                   Jonas                        Gerret

Goosen                     Arent                        Pieter                        Lucas

Andress                    Andries                    Severyn                    Luke

Melgert                     Thomas                    Casper                      Ryck

Christian                   Nicholas                   Cryn                         Youry

Coenradt                   Benjamin                 Barent                      Christoffer

Theophilus               Tobias                      Roeloff                     Myndert

Arien                        Stephanus                 Gerritse

Tjerck                       Vreedryck                Wes

Tennis                      Douw                      

Petrus                       Joost                        

Martinus                   Jonathan                  

Daniel                       Bartholomew

David                       Jeraenias

Hybartus                   Wolvert

Louis                        Harmanus

Evert                         Gysbert

Simeon                     Joachim

Jeurriaen                   Kiliaen

Melgeret                   Kasparus

Hieronomus             Morte

Christian                 

 

Female

 

Ariaantje                  Susanna                    Catrina                     Lydia

Alida                        Antonia                    Jacomyntje              Annatje

Geertje                     Carryntje                  Neeltje                     Tjaatje

Jannetje                    Hilletje                     Vannittee                 Rachel

Annetje                     Commertje               Hillegonda               Arriet

Catalyntje                 Elsie                         Joanna                      Grietje

Cornelia                   Charlotte                  Engeltje                   Elizabeth

Blandina                   Janitie                      Glorvina                  

Sarah                        Tryntje                     Josina                      

Aafje                        Anna                        Marretje                  

Margaret                   Magdalena               Judith                      

Maria                        Grintje                      Jenneke                   

Helena                      Antie                        Emitje                     

Margrata                   Anneke                     Hubertje                  

Wyntje                     Maicke                     Maritje                    

Aaltje                       Marytje                    Teuntie                    

Gertrude                   Eycke                       Femmetje                

Antje                                                        

 

 

*Ct. of record and crim. ct. for all cases from smallest up to but not including treason.

† Redressed misdemeanours, punished offences committed by tenants, debated and decided controversies.

** Inc. Eng. Thos. Chambers

*** By a lease in fee, tenant took land with little or no payment of money, but promised landlord quit-rent in kind—2 fat fowls, bushel of good merchantable wheat, etc. Leases for terms—or life or lives—subject to renewal. Tenant improved and cultivated land—could be evicted for non-payment of rent. System abolished early XIX cent.

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Red Thunder

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